To begin with, detailed functions of your own investigation users from the sex were exhibited since proportions through its particular 95% believe period (CI)

Sociodemographic characteristics provided racial self-class (white otherwise low-white age.grams. black colored, brown, red-colored, otherwise native), host to residence (urban otherwise outlying), schooling (0–cuatro, 5–8, 9–eleven, otherwise ? twelve years), and you will monthly domestic money for each and every capita within the tertiles (low, center, otherwise high). This new urban–outlying category is in accordance with the procedures employed by this new Brazilian Institute from Topography and you will Analytics (for the Portuguese, IBGE) inside 2010 inhabitants census away from management restrictions put down from the regional guidelines. In this per municipality’s boundaries, such local regulations present a fictional line titled “metropolitan fringe”. The newest census tracts receive inside “metropolitan perimeter” are termed metropolitan, whereas the rest of the parts is appointed outlying. Additional recommendations try acquired owing to a face-to-deal with interviews at participant’s house.

Anthropometric details

Height was measured in centimeters (cm) using a portable vertical stadiometer (NutriVida®, Brazil) with the participants barefoot with legs and feet parallel, weight distributed on both feet, arms relaxed at the sides, palms facing the body, and head in the Frankfurt horizontal plane. Weight was measured in kilograms (kg) using a portable digital scale (SECA®, Germany) with participants barefoot. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as the ratio between weight in kilograms (kg) and height in square meters (m 2 ). BMI cutoff points were based on the World Health Organization recommendation: underweight (< 18.5> 94 cm in men and > 80 cm in women were considered “increased” since they are associated with a higher risk of metabolic complications . All anthropometric variables were measured twice during the home visit by trained interviewers and the mean of the measurements was used in the analyses. Further information can be seen in the handbook on the survey homepage (

Mathematical analysis

Additionally, we provided information on the most prevalent chronic diseases diagnosed by a physician in our sample. Secondly, fractional polynomial regression models were fitted to estimate the percentiles (P5, P10, P20, P25, P50, P75, P90, and P95) of HGS by age group and sex. This method provides smooth centile curves and explicit formulae for the percentile estimates. Diagnostic tests were used to evaluate the model fit (normal plot of the Z-scores, Shapiro–Wilk test, and residuals plot). The model was fitted by maximum likelihood, which accounts for non-normal skewness and/or kurtosis in the data . Thirdly, HGS centile curves for men and women were plotted in charts. Finally, unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models separate for men and women were created to investigate the sociodemographic and anthropometric variables associated with muscle weakness, being estimated the odds ratio (OR) with 95%CI. Variables with p < 0.20>


Figure 1 describes the flow chart of the participants throughout the study. Our analytical sample was composed of 7905 participants aged 50–101 years (63.1 ± 9.1 years): 3162 men (63.2 ± 8.7 years) and 4743 women (63.1 ± 9.4 years). The excluding participants were similar to including participants regarding sex (p = 0.092), Г‡in sД±cak kД±zlar schooling (p = 0.813), and monthly household income per capita (p = 0.189) but tended to be older (? 80 years: 11.8% vs. 6.5%, respectively, p < 0.001).

The features of your own analysis professionals from the sex can be seen in the Table step 1. In sexes, really participants had been non-light, lived in the latest city, got 0–cuatro several years of education, and presented increased hips circumference. Regarding Body mass index, heavy was the most typical category for men (42.9%), whenever you are over weight and you can carrying excess fat got nearly similar frequencies for females (36.9% and you will thirty five.4%, respectively). Off chronic problems, 44.1% from users reported which have a health analysis regarding arterial blood circulation pressure, 17.4% regarding diabetes mellitus, 11.5% from osteoporosis, 7.4% out-of heart infection (angina, myocardial infarction, and you can center inability), and 5.7% regarding respiratory ailment (symptoms of asthma and you will chronic obstructive pulmonary condition).

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